Background There is conflicting evidence regarding whether men and women are equally likely to quit smoking. We assessed whether gender differences in smoking cessation varied between different sociodemographic groups and across e-cigarette use. Methods The 2014–15 cross-section of the Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement was weighted to represent the US adult population of current/former smokers (N = 16 040). Log binomial models tested whether gender modified the relationships between race/ethnicity, education, income or e-cigarette use and 90-day smoking cessation in the past year. Results Gender was not associated with cessation in adjusted models (RR = 0.97, CI: 0.85, 1.11). There were no statistically significant interactions between gender and sociodemographic covariates. Current e-cigarette use was associated with higher cessation (RR = 1.53, CI: 1.30, 1.81), and the association varied by gender (Interaction P = 0.013). While male e-cigarette users had a 15% predicted cessation in the past year (CI: 12, 18%), female users had a 9% predicted cessation (95% CI: 7, 11%). Probability of cessation for female e-cigarette users was not different from non-users. Conclusions These findings suggest that there are no gender differences in smoking cessation in the USA overall, or by sociodemographic groups. Current e-cigarette use is associated with higher likelihood of recent successful smoking cessation, particularly for men.