The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant provides Federal grants to States for a wide range of benefits and activities. It is best known as the major source of funding for cash welfare for needy families with children. However, Federal law allows TANF funds to be used for other benefits and services that provide economic help to low-income families with children and support the goals of reducing out-of-wedlock pregnancies and promoting two-parent families. At the Federal level, TANF is administered by the Department of Health and Human Services. However, most TANF grants are to States who, with localities, nonprofit organizations, and private sector entities, deliver the benefits and services to families. TANF programs operate in all 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands. American Samoa is eligible to operate a TANF program, but has not opted to do so. Additionally, TANF permits Indian tribes the authority to operate their own programs. As of January 2008, 269 tribes and Alaskan villages operated tribal TANF programs.