The nonprofit Urban Institute is dedicated to elevating the debate on social and economic policy. For nearly five decades, Urban scholars have conducted research and offered evidence-based solutions that improve lives and strengthen communities across a rapidly urbanizing world. Their objective research helps expand opportunities for all, reduce hardship among the most vulnerable, and strengthen the effectiveness of the public sector. ABOUT THE ME TROP OL ITA N P LANN IN G C OUN CIL Since 1934, the Metropolitan Planning Council (MPC) has been dedicated to shaping a more equitable, sustainable, and prosperous greater Chicago region. As an independent, nonprofit, nonpartisan organization, MPC serves communities and residents by developing, promoting, and implementing solutions for sound regional growth.