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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Publications, working papers, and other research using data resources from IPUMS.

2011. Latinas and Social Security.

Social Security is a crucial source of income for many Americans. This is particularly true for women and people of color, who tend to have fewer alternative sources of income, experience higher poverty rates, and earn less on average throughout their working years (Hartmann, Hayes, and Drago 2011). Latinas are one group for whom Social Security is especially important. This is, in part, because Latinas have a higher life expectancy than the majority of the population: those who were age 65 in 2010 have an average life expectancy of 89 years, compared with 85 years for all women and Hispanic men and 82 years for all men (U.S. Social Security Administration 2010). Moreover, Latinas who participate in the labor force tend to be concentrated in low-wage jobs without pensions (League of United Latin American Citizens 2010). Because Social Security provides benefits even after other resources may be exhausted, is annually adjusted for inflation, and returns a greater percentage of earnings to lower-wage workers, it is a crucial form of support for Latinas.
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